of Part B - Main Examination of Civil Services Exam
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History and Problems of Philosophy:
Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation;
Actuality and Potentiality.
Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz):
Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body
Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and
Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time;
Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of
Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation
of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture
Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of
Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private
Phenomenology (Husserl): Method;
Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence;
Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and
Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars
Cārvāka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent
Theory of Reality; Saptabhaňginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
of Buddhism: Pratītyasamutpāda; Ksanikavada, Nairātmyavāda
Nyāya- Vaiśesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance;
Theory of Pramāna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God;
Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
Sāmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
Theory of Knowledge
of Vedānta: Brahman; Īśvara; Ātman; Jiva; Jagat; Māyā;
Avidyā; Adhyāsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital
Development and Social Progress.
Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights;
Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar
Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and
Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
Problem of Evil.
Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
Reason, Revelation and Faith.
Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
Religion without God.
Religion and Morality.
Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.
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