of Part B - Main Examination of Civil Services Exam
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excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in
regional languages, religious literature.
accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
Pre-history and Proto-history:
factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of
agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
Indus Valley Civilization:
date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and
of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community
life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron
Aryans and Vedic Period:
of Aryans in India.
Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic
period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life;
Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
Period of Mahajanapadas:
of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres;
Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and
Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept
of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art,
architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of
of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of
religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature
Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land
grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam
literature and culture; Art and architecture.
Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants,
Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women,
Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi,
Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
Regional States during Gupta Era:
Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade
guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti
movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple
architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration;
Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana,
Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth
of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas,
Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major
philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula,
origin and the rise of Rajputs
The Cholas: administration, village
economy and society
Agrarian economy and urban settlements
Trade and commerce
Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
Condition of women
Indian science and technology
Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita,
Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth
of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature,
literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini,
Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
The Thirteenth Century:
Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors
behind Ghurian success
Economic, social and cultural consequences
Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
The Fourteenth Century:
“The Khalji Revolution”
Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and
Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of
Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and
public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s
Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers,
women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti
movement, Sufi movement
Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of
North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture
and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and
non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and
Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal,
Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa,
The Vijayanagra Empire
Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
Portuguese Colonial enterprise
Bhakti and Sufi Movements
The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
Regional cultural specificities
Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and
Court patronage of art and technology
Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
The Empire and the Zamindars
Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
Nature of the Mughal State
Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
The Ahom Kingdom
Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
Population, agricultural production, craft production
Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies :
a trade revolution
Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
Condition of peasants, condition of women
Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
Culture in the Mughal Empire:
Persian histories and other literature
Hindi and other religious literature
Provincial architecture and painting
Science and technology
The Eighteenth Century:
Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
The Maratha fiscal and financial system
Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest
European Penetration into India:
Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the
French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars;
Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj
and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
British Expansion in India:
– Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The
three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
Early Structure of the British Raj:
early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating
Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of
free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English
utilitarian and India.
Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement;
Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue
arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian
labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional
crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and
communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and
poverty in the rural interior; European business
enterprise and its limitations.
Social and Cultural Developments:
state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist
controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press,
literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature;
Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar;
The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in
India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of
Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the
Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
Indian Response to British Rule:
movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th
centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the
Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion
(1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great
Revolt of 1857 - Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the
post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The
Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to
the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the
social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists;
The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic
and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary
extremism in India.
of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt
Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National
politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the
Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement;
Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and
the Peasant Movements; Nationalism
and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian
politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries;
Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
strands in the National Movement
Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency,
Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the
Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the
politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The
linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional
inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the
Question of National Language.
and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral
politics; Dalit movements.
development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning
and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post - colonial
India; Progress of science.
Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
Origins of Modern Politics:
European States System.
American Revolution and the Constitution.
French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of
British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free
(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation-State System:
Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.
Imperialism and Colonialism:
South and South-East Asia
Latin America and South Africa
Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence
The World after World War II:
Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.
Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam
(i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
Unification of Europe:
Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.
Disintegration of Soviet Union and
the Rise of the Unipolar World:
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone
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