of Part B - Main Examination of Civil Services Exam
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PAPER - I
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
Geomorphology: Factors controlling
landform development; endogenetic and
exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of
geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines;
Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building;
Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and
Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion
surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic
geology and environment.
Climatology: Temperature and pressure
belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation;
atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and
jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones;
Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s,
Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;
Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in
climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity
of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides;
Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral
bleaching; sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion,
Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants
and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social
forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Environmental Geography: Principle
of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and
environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem
their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and
conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy;
Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and
Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal
differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism;
Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and
welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of
the world; Human development index.
Economic Geography: World economic
development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution;
Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture:
typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity;
Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and
remedies; World industries: locational
patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
Population and Settlement Geography:
Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and
consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being
and quality of life; Population as social capital.
and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and
rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence;
Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization;
Sustainable development of cities.
Regional Planning: Concept
of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and
growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies;
environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
Models, Theories and Laws in Human
Geography: Systems analysis in
Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central
Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s
model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and
Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
PAPER – II
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
Physical Setting: Space relationship
of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and
watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall
patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts;
Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
Resources: Land, surface and ground
water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life
resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation,
seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors:
land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern,
agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land
capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic
and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources
and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry;
agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,
aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage
and agro - based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public
sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies;
Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco
5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
Cultural Setting: Historical
Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic
and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and
their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of
population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate,
work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra-
regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and
policies; Health indicators.
Settlements: Types, patterns and
morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian
cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and
metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town
planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
Regional Development and Planning: Experience
of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development
programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development;
Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill,
tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and
development of island territories.
Political Aspects: Geographical
basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states;
Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of
India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world
affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
Contemporary Issues: Ecological
issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and
droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in
patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and
environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental
degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of
agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development;
Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage
of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.
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