of Part B - Main Examination of Civil Services Exam
Back to Section III
Back to List
Microbiology and Plant
and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and
mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and
in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.
crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes;
Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease
resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal
toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes - structure and reproduction from
evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological
and economic importance.
Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification
and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales,
Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of
Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales;
Geological time scale; Type
of fossils and their study techniques.
Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and
chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.
and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of
classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families – Mangnoliaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae,
Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and
Stomata and their types; Glandular
and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3
and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.
of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm - its
development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and
apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen
storage and test-tube fertilization.
Plant Resource Development:
and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov’s centres of
origin; Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible
oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex,
cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery;
Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations;
Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast
culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and
its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.
of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells - structural and
ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell
wall), membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport;
Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER,
dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes); Cytoskelaton and
microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome;
Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis;
Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in
chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of
genome; Polytene chromosomes;
B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution:
of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics
and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple
alleles; Linkage and crossing over; Methods of gene mapping, including molecular
maps (idea of mapping function); Sex chromosomes
and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex
differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic
inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins;Genetic code and regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution – evidences,
mechanism and theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:
of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree,
backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility
and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing;
Genetic engineering – methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and
biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding;
Tools and techniques - probe,
southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test,
t-test and chi-square test); Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and
Poisson); Correlation and
Physiology and Biochemistry:
relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies;
Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon
fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of
phloem transport; Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation) –
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration;
Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen
fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy
conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial
pigments and phytochrome); Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering,
vernalization, senescence; Growth substances – their chemical nature, role and
applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress
physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy,
storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and
Ecology and Plant Geography:
of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant
succession; Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its
control (including phytoremediation); Plant
indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India - Ecological and economic importance of forests,
afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism,
IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation;
Protected Area Network; Convention on Biological Diversity; Farmers’
Rights and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development;
Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic change;
Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical
regions of India.
Back to Section III
Back to Top