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Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural
Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
Social- cultural Anthropology.
Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of
evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism,
convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate
Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates;
Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and
Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the
Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa - Australopithecines.
erectus: Africa (Paranthropus),
Europe (Homo erectus
heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus,
Homo erectus pekinensis).
Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel
sapiens -- Cromagnon, Grimaldi and
The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication,
Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute
Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
2.1 The Nature of Culture: The
concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-ŕ-vis
2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of
Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social
Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy,
exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy,
polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage
regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments
(bride wealth and dowry).
Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic
groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of
structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of
urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double,
Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety
and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent,
Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist
and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and
exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on
hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and
agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom
and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and
justice in simple societies.
Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion
(evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred
and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant
societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion,
magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest,
shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and
Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
Structuralism (L’evi - Strauss and E. Leach)
Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora - du
Neo - evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
Cultural materialism (Harris)
Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
Post- modernism in anthropology
Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin and characteristics
of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language
Research methods in anthropology:
Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
Distinction between technique, method and methodology
Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules,
questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary
sources of information, participatory methods.
Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
Human Genetics – Methods and Application:
Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree
analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method,
chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological
methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor,
lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population,
Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation,
isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous
and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous
and cousin marriages.
Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super
female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat
Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling,
human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of
non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to
heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial
differentiation and race crossing in man.
Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood
groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb
level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in
different cultural and socio-economic groups.
Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations
– Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to
environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and
non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth - pre-natal,
natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations - biological and chronological
longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility.
Fertility patterns and differentials.
Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.
Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility,
natality and mortality.
Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional
anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments,
Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and
reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic
counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics
and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization -- Prehistoric (Palaeolithic,
Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic - Chalcolithic). Protohistoric (Indus
Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures.
Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to
Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus
and Narmada Man).
in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the
hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and
crafts producing communities.
Demographic profile of India -- Ethnic and linguistic elements in the
Indian population and their distribution. Indian population - factors
influencing its structure and growth.
structure and nature of traditional Indian social system -- Varnashram,
Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
system in India- structure and characteristics, Varna and caste, Theories of
origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system,
Jajmani system, Tribe- caste continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on
Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-Contributions of the 18th,
19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators.
Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
Village: Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a social
system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste
relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social,
political and economic status.
Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian
society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little
and great traditions; Panchayati raj and social change; Media and social change.
Tribal situation in India –
Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal
populations and their distribution.
Problems of the tribal Communities
-- land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational
facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
Developmental projects and their
impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation.
Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanization and
industrialization on tribal populations.
Problems of exploitation and
deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
Social change and contemporary
tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development
programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic
conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities;
Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the
tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal
and nation state -- a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other
of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal
development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal
Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development.
Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism,
communalism, and ethnic and political movements.
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