|Animal Husbandry and
Veterinary Science - Optional
of Part B - Main Examination of Civil Services Exam
Back to Section III
Back to List
Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect
calorimetry. Carbon nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods.
Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry.
Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool,
and meat production.
Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships.
Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein
requirements for maintenance,
growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
Major and trace minerals - Their sources, physiological functions and
deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble
and water soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency
Feed additives methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics,
hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers
etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics latest
Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent
advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti nutritional and toxic
factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials direct, indirect and indicator
methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations.
Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for
feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of
feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk production.
Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and
finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for
Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient
requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different
classes of layers and broilers.
Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion.
Endocrine glands in health and disease.
Blood constituents.-Properties and functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin
synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and
properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood
groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests
and their significance in disease diagnosis.
Circulation. - Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart
beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart
function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart,
effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension,
osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock.
Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid-
circulation in birds.
Respiration. - Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases neural control of
respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of
studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological
constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion
in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinary
Endocrine glands. -Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal
receptors-classification and function.
Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation,
growth curves, measures of growth,
factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction
and Digestion- Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk
secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, their
components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation;
mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms
involved in animal behaviour, climatology various parameters and their
importance. Animal ecology. Physiology
of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.
Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components of
semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of
ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro.
Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of
diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing
techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and
time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding.
Livestock Production and Management:
Commercial Dairy Farming-
Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under
mixed farming and as specialized
farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land
requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming,
factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting,
cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing
Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the
year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new
trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
Commercial meat, egg and wool production- Development of practical and
economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens,
fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing
production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio- economic
Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural
Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis:
Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes;
Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited
characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic
inheritance. Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and
protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Transgenesis.
Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy
Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces
changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path
coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems
of inbreeding, Effective population
size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic
deviation; Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and
genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance
Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability,
repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of
estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative
merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny
testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses;
Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods;
Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading,
cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial
production; Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for
threshold characters. Sire index.
philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods
adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its
transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer of technology.
Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.
Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
Histology and Histological
Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E.
staining - Freezing microtomy- Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron
microscope. Cytology-structure of cell, organells and inclusions; cell
division-cell types- Tissues and their classification-embryonic and adult
tissues-Comparative histology of organs-Vascular. Nervous, digestive,
respiratory, musculo- skeletal and urogenital systems- Endocrine glands
Embryology Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves
and domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers- foetal membranes
and placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and
twinning- organogenesis -germ layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal and
Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface
anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary,
mandibuloalveolar,mental and cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of
paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular
and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial
lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic
cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in
the biomechanics of mammalian body.
Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation
to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs - Cellular level of pharmacodynamics
and pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs
acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and
dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles of
chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics-
chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible
tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to
insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.
Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation -
Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil- Importance of climate in animal
health- effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship
between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housing requirements
for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking
cows, broiler birds- stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal
Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions,
diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses,
pigs and poultry.
Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production
diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.
Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat,
Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific
diseases- herd immunity- disease free zones- zero disease concept-
Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication.
Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking
abomasal displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.
Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory
investigation- Establishment of Animal
Health Centers- Disease free zone-
Veterinary Public Health:
Zoonoses. - Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in
prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases- occupational zoonotic
Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application
of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control.
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE
regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal
quality and prevention of animal diseases - State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne
diseases- S P C A- Veterolegal cases-
Certificates -Materials and Methods of collection of samples for
Milk and Milk Products Technology:
Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing,
packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control.
Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double
toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and
flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their
management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and
sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe
milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology.- Selection of
raw materials, processing, storing , distributing and marketing milk products
such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa,
Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice cream and
Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing,
grading, judging milk products- BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards,
quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational
control. Costing of dairy products.
Meat Hygiene and Technology:
Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and
dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection
procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts- grading of carcass meat cuts-
duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
Hygienic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and
control measures- Post - slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors
that influence them- Quality improvement methods Adulteration of meat and
detection - Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of
preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat
products, processing and formulations.
By- products- Slaughter house by- products and their utilization- Edible
and inedible by products- Social and economic implications of proper utilization
of slaughter house by-products- Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
Poultry Products Technology- Chemical composition and nutritive value of
poultry meat, pre - slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques,
inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards.
composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and
maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value added meat
Animal farming - Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and
wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.
Back to Section III
Back to Top